Carmem Cicera Maria da Silva Campelo is a bacharelor’s in chemistry from Universidade Federal do Piauí (2003), has Master in Chemisty at the same institution. She is a professor at the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul. Curretly she is at a phd student at program at the Faculty of Exact Science and Techology (FACET) at the Federal University Grande Dourados (UFGD). Her experience is based on chemistry with focus on Physical Chemistry, acting in cenostigma macrophyllum, lupeol and biodisel.
The frying oil is gaining prominence due to growing demand for biofuels, as raw material appears as an alternative energy lowering environmental impact. The difficulty of an effective oil gathering in micro and macro sphere to supply the biodiesel production from this raw material is evident. Lack of application of a standard operating procedure in the oil handling in commercial scope, affects its quality, compromising the collection intended for biodiesel production and even more for food consumption. Through three feeding points in the university town, frying oil samples were collected named A, B, C, which were physic-chemically characterized. In the establishments were applied an evaluation questionnaire about the handling and use of oil and then was elaborated a training with application of a standard procedure in order to minimize impurities in the raw material. In parallel, gathering points were set in the university town (UEMS and UFGD), generating socio-environmental awareness and highlighting the importance of conscious disposal of household waste, thus promoting the importance of an efficient collection not only of commercial oils, but also of household. The oil collected in the feeding sites presented very different physic-chemical characteristics from the commercial soybean oil, mainly in the parameters of acidity, water content, fat and impurities, making them unsuitable for food and also for the biodiesel production, which strengthens the idea of awareness about the effective collection.
Mrs. Elena Dominguez Solera, holds a Bachelor Degree in Chemical Engineer from the Universidad Politécnica of Valencia (Spain) with a Master in Technology of Polymeric Materials and Composites. Researcher at the Department of Sustainability and Industrial Recovery of AIMPLAS since 2015. Among the activities which carry on, are included: research in the fields of new material developments, manufacturing processes, recycling/recovery of materials and eco-design. She also has experience in the field of bioplastics/biocomposites and implements laboratory tests (according to established standards and relevant legislation) for determination of biodegradability (in different environments) and compostability of these materials.
Biodegradable polymers are being increasingly used in several applications, such as packaging, disposable non-wovens and hygiene products, consumer goods and agricultural products. A wide variety of biodegradable polymers have been developed, both from petrochemical and renewable sources. Polylactic acid (PLA) is the most demanded biodegradable polymer in the market, which is mainly used for the manufacture of compostable packaging. ISO 13432 establishes the requirements for packaging to be considered as recoverable through composting and biodegradation, including the test scheme and evaluation criteria for the final acceptance of packaging. The test scheme typically involves the following analysis and testing: chemical characterization (heavy metals and volatile organic compounds), biodegradation, disintegration and eco-toxicity (of the composted product). Test on disintegration is usually the most limiting factor for plastic products to be accepted as compostable. This paper will present the main findings of a study on the degree of disintegration of different PLA commercial grades. Samples of pellets and sheets with various thicknesses were tested under simulated composting conditions in a labscale test. The degree and speed of disintegration of these samples were measured and compared with each other. Hence, the effect of the shape and thickness of the product on the disintegration was evaluated. Based on these findings, recommendations for product design and waste conditioning prior to composting were provided to ensure the compostability of PLA products.