Day 1 :
European Polymer Federation, France
Keynote: Electrospun fibers from biosourced and biodegradable polymers for biotechnological applications
Time : 10:00-10:30
Prof. Jean-François GERARD got his PhD diploma in Polymer Science in 1985 from researches dedicated to syntheses of zwitterionic polyurethanes from sulfobetainic diols for self-emulsifying systems. He joined in 1986 CNRS as permanent scientist and his expertise deals with interfaces in polymer-based materials and nanostructured polymers. He is author of about 240 papers in international journals and 110 invited lectures in international conferences. He acts also as vice-president of the European Center for Nanostructured Polymers) and President of the European Polymer Federation.
rnElectrospinning process is one of the most promising routes for the design and development of smart textiles based on polymer nanofibers. From a proper selection of the electrospining process parameters and polymers, (multi)functional textiles could be proposed. In this lecture, we will show how biobased polymers, such as PLA-based, and biodegradable polymers, such as PBAT, can be used to prepare electrospun scaffolds. In the first part, electrospinning is applied to neat polylactic acid (PLA) and to PLA-based blends, i.e. PLA/polyethylene glycol-b-polylactic acid block copolymers and PLA/PEG homopolymer. Electrospun membranes exhibit fibers having diameters from 110 to 310 nm depending on the composition and large amounts of porosity (about 80% vol.) which are required for cell culture application. In vitro degradation, as well as the hydrophilicity of the electrospun scaffolds, can be finely tuned from material composition. Fluorescence microscopy shows that the PLA electrospun fibers based scaffolds are good candidates for the survival and proliferation of neural stem cells. Even if the introduction of hydrophilic segments, i.e. polyethylene glycol from PLA-b-PEG block copolymer, leads to the the same level of proliferation than PLA-based membranes, the PLA/PLA-b-PEG electrospun membranes exhibited the suitable hydrolytic degradation required for implantable scaffolds. The second part deals with the development of biodegradable PBAT electrospun membranes with potential applications in the field of smart textiles. As mentioned previously, the fiber morphology is strongly dependent on the tip-collector distance, concentration, and applied voltage. Smooth fibers and beads free membranes could be prepared and analyzed to establish morphology-properties relationships. PBAT membranes having the best thermal and mechanical properties were selected as host of a curli protein which is able to complex heavy metals. In fact, by electrospinning, porous membranes exhibiting a large surface-to-volume ratio could be proposed for chelation of pollutants such as nickel.rnrn
University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
Keynote: Plantics: Plastics made from plants
Time : 10:30-11:00
Gadi Rothenberg has obtained his BSc in Chemistry in 1993, and PhD in Applied Chemistry from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel in 1999. He was a Marie Curie Fellow at the University of York (UK) and moved to the University of Amsterdam where he is now a Professor and Chair of Heterogeneous Catalysis and Sustainable Chemistry at the Van `t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences. He also teaches courses on catalysis, thermodynamics and scientific writing. He has published two books and over 160 papers in peer-reviewed journals. His textbook “Catalysis: Concepts & Green Applications” is a Wiley-VCH bestseller. He has also invented 15 patents, and co-founded the companies like Sorbisense A/S, Yellow Diesel BV and Plantics BV. His latest inventions are a new catalyst for cleaning cyanide from wastewater and a metal-free super-capacitor material.
How often is it that you invent something that can truly change people’s lives and make the world a better place? We’ve been working on catalyst discovery and development for bulk chemicals and sustainable energy for over a decade, and during those years we found quite a few nice things, but nothing truly spectacular. And then, five years ago, we discovered by accident a new type of biodegradable polymer made from 100% plant-based materials. It would be nice to say that this involved years of study and preparation, but in fact we were just very lucky. This new plastic is inherently non-toxic and non-hazardous. Excitingly, it is cheap enough to replace polyurethane and in some cases polypropylene and PET on a kilogram to kilogram basis (see Figure 1). It is now being manufactured on ton scale by a spin-off company, Plantics BV, which is situated at the Port of Amsterdam. During the scaling up and manufacturing we have found a host of new and exciting things. In the lecture, I will tell you how we discovered this plastic, and discuss the pros and cons of making chemicals and polymers from biomass. I will also show examples of this new type of plastics and share our stories of trying to bring a new material into the conservative industrial sectors of injection moulding, agro-products, building materials and oil drilling additives.
National Institute of chemistry, Slovenia
Time : 11:00-11:30
Matjaž Kunaver has done his MSc from the University of Leeds UK in 1991 and has received his PhD degree in 1998 at the University of Leeds, UK. He is a Senior Scientist Researcher at the National Institute of Chemistry, Laboratory for Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Ljubljana, Slovenia and is an Assistant Professor at the University of Ljubljana and Polymer Technology College. His main fields of research are the utilization of biomass as a feedstock for polymer synthesis and production of nanocellulose. He has published more than 50 original scientific papers and 6 patents.
Biomass represents an immense and renewable source for the production of bio-fuels and valuable chemicals. Using liquefaction reaction, lignocellulosic components are depolymerized to low molecular mass compounds with high reactivity, high hydroxyl group content and can be used in many useful applications. We used liquefied biomass as a feedstock in polymer chemistry, such as synthesis of polyesters, polyurethane foams and adhesives. Herein, we also report on the optimized procedure for rapid preparation of nanocrystalline cellulose by liquefaction of its amorphous part of cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses in ethylene glycol under acidic catalysis. Lignocellulosic biomass which was dispersed in glycol and methane sulfonic acid was used as a catalyst. The NCC was isolated as a residue, rinsed with 1,4-dioxane and centrifuged. The product was a NCC suspension in 1,4-dioxane or similar medium polar solvent. The crystallinity index was from 83% to 90% and the yield was more than 67% while using cotton as the starting material. Method for preparation of NCC by acid hydrolysis in ethylene glycol is a model procedure for NCC isolation from different natural cellulosic sources such as biomass with high yields and with high crystallinity index. A special attention was given to the utilization of the liquefied lignocellulosic materials as a new energy source with high heating value. The utilization of liquefied lignocellulosic materials can at least partially reduce the crude oil consumption, thus increasing the use of the renewable resources in large extent.
- Workshop on "Avantium renewable chemistries update" by Alan A Smith, Avantium Renewable Chemistries, Netherlands (11:45-12:25)
Location: Terra Lucis
Alan looks after Business Development for Avantium Renewable Chemistries, picking up projects from the incubator stage to when it’s time to seek collaborations. For the past 13 years he has been working in a role in business development in the Chemical Industry and before that spent over a decade running R&D projects.
We have recently announced the completion of the JV with BASF named Synvina.® It’s goal is to develop world-leading positions in FDCA and PEF by building an upto 50ktpa plant at the BASF’s Verbund site in Antwerp and to license the technology for industrial scale production. Synvina® will use the YXY process® developed by Avantium for the production of FDCA.There are two projects in an earlier phase which we are able to share more details of.
- Zambezi process – 2G sugar biorefinery and
- Mekong process – to produce bio based monoethylene glycol (bio-MEG)
The Zambezi process has great potential to provide sugars from non-food biomass for chemical and bio-polymer applications. Zambezi has several advantages over other 2G technologies: static biomass, avoidance of pretreatment, high purity glucose products, near quantitative yield, produces clean lignin and is feedstock flexible.
The Mekong process is one-step, high atom efficiency process which is competitive with the oil based MEG. The current commercial route to bio-MEG is a multistep low atom efficiency process, making bio-MEG too expensive, especially in a low oil environment. With bio-MEG demands estimated to reach 3 million tonnes in the next few years and the wider MEG market some 10x this volume, the potential for the technology is enormous.
The current status and perspectives of Zambezi and Mekong will be discussed further in the talk.
- Track 1: Biobased Chemicals & Bioplastics
Track 2: Noble Advances in Bioplastics
Track 3: Methods of production of Bioplastics
University of Applied Sciences FH Technikum Wien, Austria
Hokkaido University, Japan
Title: Characterization and biodegradation of lactate-based polymer biosynthesized from renewable carbon sources
Time : 12:25 -12:45
Professor Seiichi TAGUCHI has completed his PhD from The University of Tokyo and was promoted to be professor of the Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, in 2004. In 1997, he visited to join as research scientist at the Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology of Immune System, Luis-Pasteur University. After that, he joined Polymer Chemistry Laboratory of RIKEN as a senior research scientist and firstly introduced modern approaches such as enzyme evolution to biotechnological production of polyhydroxyalkanates. His current main research focuses on the creation of novel biological catalysts that can be adapted to the desired environment or biosystem. He has published more than 150 papers in reputed journals.
Biologically synthesized polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are attractive materials as bio-based alternatives to petroleum-derived thermoplastics. We developed a microbial platform carrying evolutionarily engineered PHA synthetic enzymes that confer high enantio-selectivity and broad substrate specificity toward monomeric constituents. The finding of an engineered PHA synthase with lactate (LA)-polymerizing activity (Lactate Polymerizing Enzyme, LPE) was a major breakthrough to achieve the microbial production of the diverse polymers, particularly LA-based polymers. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is most widespread bio-based polymer due to its superior transparency and processability. Our microbial processes produce LA-based polymers from renewable resources via one-pot fermentation. In this talk, topics for the engineering approaches to synthesize new biopolymers will be introduced together with the polymer biodegradation. Especially, combination of metabolic engineering and enzyme engineering are very powerful toolboxes for this purpose. Recently, using analytical GC-MS, we established the quantitative metabolite analysis procedure to address the rate-limiting step for synthesis of LA-based polymers. This new analytical system actually provided us with improved production of PLA-related polymers. This strategy should be applicable to a wide range of PHA-producing systems. It should also be noted that the unusual substrate specificity of LPE was found to be applicable to the synthesis of PLA-related polymers incorporating even other 2-hydroxyalkanoate (2HA) monomers; glycolate and 2-hydroxybutyrate. This finding further expands the structural diversity in microbial polyesters. Xylose utilization was also an effective for production of PLA-related polymers with respect to realizing the value chain system from raw biomass to value-added biomaterials.
Kenichiro Nishiza has completed his Master’s degree of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry from Kyoto University Graduate School of Engineering, and has joined Kaneka Corporation in 2005. He has been working at the Cooperate R&D of Kaneka in the research field of Reactive Polymer Processing from 2005 to 2011. Now, he is the Technical Service Specialist Biopolymer of Kaneka Belgium, and has been developing new PHA applications in European market.
Mainly due to its bio-based and biodegradable character, PHA (Polyhydroxyalkanoate) materials are gaining clear interests in the field of polymer industries. In this presentation a specific co-polymer of 3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate (“PHBH”), is described as produced by Kaneka Corporation. PHBH is a 100% plant-based and biodegradable polymer to offer flexibility in films, heat resistance in solid products. While maintaining the key characteristics of polyolefin materials, the polymer can be converted to its compounds in a variable range from soft to hard. Moreover, the printability and heat-sealability are of high quality and suitable for biodegradable packaging. PHBH holds OK compost and OK compost HOME certifications which guarantee biodegradation in an industrial and a home composting system and PHBH biodegrades under anaerobic conditions. It also meets the ASTM D7081 which is the standard specification of marine biodegradation. Kaneka has been gathering data of marine biodegradability, and it will be presented at the conference. These various biodegradabilities draw attention as a low environmental load material. For example, PHBH is tested as garbage bags for anaerobic digestion facilities. The employed raw materials are biomasses such as plant oils, which are renewable resources. Through Kaneka’s fermentation technology, the polymers are accumulated in the bodies of microorganisms and further refined and extracted. PHBH based materials are generally converted by standard polymer processing techniques such as injection moulding, blow moulding, etc. In addition, we would like to introduce several marine biodegradable applications which can contribute to reducing marine pollution by plastics.
Université Paris Est, France
Title: Novel biobased elastomeric polymer based on semi-interpenetrating Poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate)s and sunflower oil using a trithiol as crosslinking agent
Time : 13:05-13:25
Carine Mangeon Pastori is a PhD of the East Paris Institute of Chemistry and Materials Science, Thiais, France, since September 2014. Her scientist research deals with the development of new biobased polymeric materials. The main goal of her study consists in developing and improving the properties of polyhydroxyalkanotaes (PHA) produced from bacterial strains in order to enhance their thermal and mechanical properties. She has published two patents and one publication in this research field.
Poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate)s (PHAs), have been suggested as green substitutes to replace petroleum-based commodity polymer because of their biodegradability, biocompatibility and versatility. Although PHAs are very promising material in the field of eco-friendly plastics, their intrinsic brittleness and narrow processing temperature window limit their range of application. As a consequence, many attempts have been made to develop PHA with better mechanical and thermal properties. In recent years, much attention has been focused on the development of polymeric materials from vegetable oils, a sustainable resource. Their competitive cost, worldwide availability and built-in functionality (ester functions and insaturations) make them attractive to reinforced various types of polymers. In this study, we report a unique approach to toughen PHAs by increasing their elongation at break and enhancing their thermal stability using sunflower oil (SO). The strategy consisted in the synthesis of a biobased semi-interpenetrating (semi-IPNs) network by crossliking sunflower oil and triméthylolpropane tris(3-mercaptopropionate), a trithiol using “click” thiol-ene reactions into linear PHA polymer matrix. This functionalization process that is characterized by high yields, high reaction rate and short reaction time was initiated photochemically by ultraviolet light in the presence of a photoinitiator 2,2-diméthoxy-2-phényl acétophénone (DMPA). The resulting semi-IPNs PHA/SO exhibited excellent flexibility and showed relatively good thermal stability. Mechanical analysis results have shown that semi-IPNs with 30 wt% of crosslinked sunflower oil displayed excellent properties with an increase of the elastic modulus (170 %) as compared to pristine PHA (7 %). Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the thermal stability of the semi-IPNs increased by incorporation sunflower oil into PHA matrix. Moreover, a single glass transition temperature for the semi-IPN containing sunflower oil up to 30% was observed with dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), which suggested good compatibility between sunflower oil and PHA in the network.
Lunch Break 13:35-14:35 @ La Plaza
University of Turku, Finland
Veronica Carbonell is licentiate on Environmental Sciences by the University of Miguel Hernandez with strong international background .Thanks to Veronica Carbonell is licentiate on Environmental Sciences by the University of Miguel Hernandez with strong international background thanks to
Statement of the problem: Greenhouse gas emissions and limited fossil fuel reserves increase the need to find alternative ways to generate substitutes for petroleum-derived products such as ethylene. Ethylene is a simple alkene of commercial value due to multitude of large-scale uses in plastic industry and ever growing demand. One of the promising approaches is to use cyanobacterial cells as biological factories, through their photosynthetic capacity to produce ethylene using atmospheric CO2 and water as substrates. Methodology & Theorical Orientation: The biosynthesis of ethylene has been studied in Synechoccocus sp 7942 by over-expressing the heterologous ethylene forming enzyme (efe) from Pseudomonas syringae which converts the endogenous metabolic precursor 2-oxoglutarate to ethylene. As a volatile gas, ethylene then diffuses out from the cell and spontaneously separates into the culture headspace for collection and analysis. Findings: We have studied different aspects of observed genetic instability which have earlier compromised prolonged ethylene production in Synechococcus and developed stable production strains capable of sustained autotrophic ethylene biosynthesis. Conclusion & Significance: Although the production lev 5:els still remain below the threshold required for commercial applications, cyanobacteria have been intensively studied in this respect, and a range of molecular biology tools and production platforms are being developed and characterized.
- Exhibitor Presentation on Braskem by Brendan, Braskem, Brazil (14:35-15:35)
Location: Terra Lucis
- Track 6: Biomaterials & Biopolymers
Track7: Plastic Pollution and Waste Management
track 9: Bioplastics Products
Location: Terra Lucis
University Paris VI, France
University of Rome "Niccolò Cusano", Italy
Time : 15:35-15:55
Ilaria Cacciotti is an Associate Professor of Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering, and Material Science and Technology. She is the Coordinator for Engineering Area, member of the Research Committee and of the Board of PhD Course in Industrial and Civil Engineering at the Engineering Department of University of Rome Niccolò Cusano. She has graduated in Medical Engineering (Master of Science Award ‘Fondazione Raeli’), completed her PhD in Materials Engineering, and has obtained II Level Master’s degrees in Forensic Genetics and in Protection against CBRNe events. She has spent research periods at Kyoto Institute of Technology-Piezotech (Japan) and ITRI-Deakin University (Australia). Her research activity is mainly focused on the synthesis and characterisation of nanoceramic, polymeric and composite materials, in forms of particles, spheres, films, fibres, for biomedical and food packaging application. She was awarded with 8th CCT Award “Best Oral Presentation for Young Researchers”, 10th International Award "Giuseppe Sciacca"-Young Students, European Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Doctoral Award, "Young Researcher Award Elsevier-Materials Science and Engineering: C", "Top Cited Author 2011-2012 ChemEngJ", "Certificate of Excellence in Reviewing" (MaterChem and Phys 2013).
Universite Paris Est, France
Time : 15:55-16:15
Professor Valerie LANGLOIS has completed his PhD at the age of 28 years from University Paris VI. She is now deputy director of the East Paris Institute of Chemistry and Materials Science in Thiais, France (Université Paris Est, CNRS). Her main scientific interests are related to biodegradable polyesters, their chemical modifications and synthesis of copolymers. Her research activities are devoted to fundamental aspects of biodegradable polyesters in relation with their biomedical applications such as drug delivery systems, tissue engineering or antibacterial materials. She has published more than eighty publications in this research field.
Poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) constitute a class of natural polyesters produced and accumulated by many bacteria as carbon and energy supply when an essential nutrient is limited. Due to their biodegradability and biocompatibility features, PHAs look promising candidates for biomedical applications especially in the fields of biomedical devices, tissue engineering or biodegradable drug carriers. For the latter application, amphiphilic bacterial PHAs-based diblock or triblock copolymers have been synthesized and proved to self-assemble into micelles, nanoparticles or polymersomes in aqueous media. In the case of endovascular prosthesis, drug eluting stents are of great interest in the field of interventional cardiology by promising a long-term prevention of restenosis. An adequate drug release control, mechanical response to stent expansion and degradability of the coating are of major importance. The present approach described the potential use of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate)s as biodegradable and compatible coatings. We also showed that electrospun biocomposite scaffolds based on biocompatible and biodegradable polyesters, such as poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate)s, will hold relevance as temporary supports for human mesenchymal stromal cells development and differentiation with a high therapeutic potential in tissue regeneration processes. Recently, we developed antibacterial biomaterials based on PHAs by different photochemical modifications of the surface. Such PHAs derived materials led to a tremendous inhibition of the adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
Time : 16:15-16:35
Mrs. Pilar Villanueva, has a bachelor in Chemical Engineering and finished her PhD in 2009 within the programme “Technological Innovation Projects and Process and Product Engineering” in the Universitat Jaume I of Castellón. Her thesis was focused on basic research in the development of nanocomposites made of polyethylene and clay nanofillers She works in AIMPLAS as researcher and extrusion technician since 2009. She has participated in several national and European projects involved in the development of new biodegradable and compostable plastics for packaging, agricultural applications and household appliances (examples of projects HYDRUS, DRIUS, BUGWORKERS, BIOTUBO, LATSTARCH). Author of more than 20 contributions to conferences and journals, including an international patent.
Biodegradable plastic materials can be considered as the main breakthrough of the last two decades in plastics technology. Its use has broaden to many applications as its properties have been improved to meet more demanding requirements. Biodegradable materials are being established as an alternative to conventional thermoplastic materials in a number of applications such as packaging, biomedical, agriculture, etc. However, most of the biodegradable plastics need physical and/or chemical modifications to achieve the requirements for each case of study. Related to this, AIMPLAS is working in different European projects where new materials have been developed suitable to obtain biodegradable packaging by extrusion technologies directly applicable to conventional industrial processes. Two examples are BIOBOTTLE and BIO4MAP projects. BIOBOTTLE project. New biodegradable bottles and pouches have been developed for packaging different types of dairy products (fresh milk, pasteurized mild and UHT dairy products), maintaining their shelf life in comparison with traditional packages. The packages developed into the project, fulfil the different characteristics based on thermal, mechanical, microbiological and organoleptic properties depending on the type of dairy product. One of the main challenges of this project was to fulfil the thermal properties to support the sterilization and pasteurization conditions. BIO4MAP project. The aim of this project has been to develop innovative fully biodegradable and recyclable, multilayer, flexible and transparent structures for packaging fresh pasta and different types of cheese that requires customized modified atmosphere (MAP). Different biodegradable thermoplastic materials have been combined, mainly polylactic acid (PLA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH). Packages have been obtained by coextrusion and thermoforming technologies. With the aim of increasing the barrier against moisture, a biodegradable coating based on natural waxes has been applied to the inner layer of the multilayer structure.
Case Western Reserve University,USA
Time : 16:55-17:15
Daniel Brannum is starting his 5th year in the Macromolecular Science and Engineering Department at Case Western Reserve University. He has 2 patents pending and multiple papers in preparation. During his time in graduate school Daniel has received the Bayer Award for excellence in research, dedication, and contribution to the scientific community and earned internship positions at 3 different Fortune 500 companies.
The demand for viable materials to treat medical solutions such as tissue regeneration and bone regrowth in modern day medicine has not yet been met. Though there have been many breakthroughs, in recent decades the advances are unfortunately incremental. Collagen, being the most abundant protein found in the human extracellular matrix has been an attractive option for treatment in these fields. However, properties such as thermal stability, solubility, and reconstitution of hierarchical structure have proven to be challenging. Due to the poor solubility in standard solvents people have heated solution, used organic acids, or even electrospun collagen mats. These methods destroy hydrogen bonding, denaturing the collagen into random coil type polymers. The presented research highlights a benign solvent system that allows for an increase in collagen concentration levels orders of magnitude higher than previously cited in literature. At the same time the collagen solution only temporarily disrupts the hydrogen bonding making it possible to reconstitute the natural triple helix. This method is then used to form physical crosslinked hydrogels and dry films. For additional stability and comparison of mechanical properties, chemical crosslinking through known natural methods, such as genipin and riboflavin, were used. The fundamental understanding of collagen and how to mimic physiological conditions will bring forward new advances in medical applications.
Université Paris Est, France
Time : 17:15-17:35
Tina MODJINOU has started her graduate studies (PhD) at East Paris Institute of Chemistry and Materials Science in Thiais, France (Université Paris Est, CNRS) since October 2013 under the advisor of Pr. Estelle Renard in Pr. Langlois research group. Her PhD work focuses in part on the chemical modification strategies for biodegradable/biocompatible copolyester mainly PHAs for medical applications. The main goal of her studies is devoted to the design of new bio-based materials with antioxidant and antibacterial activities and the improvement of theirs properties. She has published three publications in these research fields.
With the increasing scarcity of oil resources and in a period of energy transition due to global warming and the impacts on the biosphere, researches increasingly greater are conducted to find an alternative to petrochemical products. Among these resources, plants have a growing interest since they are an enormous source of complex chemical molecules exploited in different fields such as Fragrance, Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical industries. Essential oils, present in plant resources, constitute a non-food valorization of the Biomass. The powerful and green process of thiol-ene addition was used to elaborate bio-based networks from eugenol loaded with two phenolic compounds as active release materials. Carvacrol, a phenolic monoterpenoïd presents in thyme or oregano, and tannic acid, a polyphenol family tannins (glucose polyester) known for their antibacterial and antioxidant activities have been embedded in the cross-linked eugenol based network to increase its antibacterial properties. Their antibacterial and antioxidant activities have been evaluated and promising properties have been demonstrated since derived materials led to a tremendous inhibition of the adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Systems proceeding by diffusion (carvacrol) or by diffusion and immobilization (tannic acid) of antibacterial and antioxidant moieties have been obtained. Moreover, in the case of tannic acid, the materials present the advantage of having a sustainable antibacterial and antioxidant activities over time since an oxidative coupling reaction between phenol groups leads to the trapping of tannic acid in the network.